Chaparral, Northern California. This part of California is one of the world's five Mediterranean climate regions, each of which is an important biodiversity hotspot containing many endemic plant species (species that are found nowhere else). All of these areas experience cool, wet winters and hot, dry summers. Because the plants and animals must deal with the extended dry season, they have many adaptations to conserve water. For example, many Mediterranean climate plants have thick, tough, evergreen leaves that retain moisture well. The other regions are: the Mediterranean itself, parts of South Africa, southwest and southern Australia, and parts of Chile.