Title Info
Source Dan L. Perlman
Ecosystems Forests
Forests Tropical rainforest
Ecological interactions Herbivory
Organisms Animals; Plants
Animals Insects
Lessons Herbivory
Date October 23, 2004
Location Salto Morato Natural Reserve,Parana,Brazil,South America

Rows of holes made by leaf herbivores, Brazil. This is a nice example of herbivory as well as a good puzzle for students. Ask how this particular pattern of holes was formed in the leaf. The actual answer is that this leaf, which belongs to either a Heliconia plant or a close relative, developed curled, in approximately a cylindrical shape. While it was still curled, a few herbivores (probably insect larvae) ate straight through the curled leaf. When it unrolled, the straight lines of holes appear as shown here, stretching from side to side of the leaf.